Base 64 encoding is used to encode binary data into a subset of ASCII characters. The encoding converts each 3 binary bytes into 4 ASCII characters (in the first 7 bits), making it safe for many applications. This means only 64 ASCII characters are used to represent encoded data.
Characters used to represent encoded data are A-Z, a-z, 0-9, plus (+) and slash (/). Additionally an equal sign is used at the end of the encoded data as padding for missing bytes. For example a four character string encoded in Base 64 requires 6 characters as data plus two padding characters, as encoded data length must always be multiple of 4.
Base 64 encoding is often used in HTTP protocol, mail protocols, in HTML (data URL) even in encryption key encoding.
Base 64 IS NOT an encryption algorithm, it is merely a date encoding algorithm providing absolutely no protection! Do not use it to secure any kind of data.